What is “failure to thrive?”

Failure to thrive” is the term used to describe children whose growth rate is significantly lower than that of other children of the same age and gender. While some children fail to meet expected growth standards, most follow a pattern of growth that is considered a normal variation. In reality, a small number of children are actually diagnosed with failure to thrive. 

Most children double their birth weight by 4–6 months and triple it by 1 year of age. Children with failure to thrive may hit the first target, but miss the second. In some instances, weight, as well as height, is affected. Inadequate growth can also affect brain development and the ability for a child to reach certain developmental milestones at appropriate times in early childhood. A child’s brain grows to 80 percent of its adult size in the first three years of life. Poor growth during this time period can have lasting consequences. 

What causes failure to thrive? 

When children fail to meet expected growth standards, there are a variety of underlying problems that can keep them from getting the calories they need to grow. Breastfed infants may not be getting enough milk due to a rigid feeding schedule as opposed to being fed on request. Some children may need more food than their parents are able to provide. And some parents may restrict calories fearing their child will become obese.

Failure to thrive could also signal a medical problem. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), medical problems that can cause poor growth include: 

  • Growth hormone or thyroid hormone deficiency 
  • Allergy 
  • Gastrointestinal disease or infection that prevents nutrients from being adequately absorbed 
  • Metabolic diseases such as cystic fibrosis, diabetes, or heart disease, which can affect nutrient absorption and nutrient needs 
  • Genetic diseases such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome 
  • Damage to the brain or central nervous system, which can cause feeding difficulties in infants 
  • Anemia or other blood disorders 

An environment of abuse or neglect can also contribute to insufficient weight gain. Living in poverty, poor eating habits, being exposed to infection, parasites, or toxins can also play a role in a child’s failure to thrive.

How do I know if my child is failing to thrive? 

Children who are failing to thrive are typically much smaller or shorter than other children their age. Slow weight gain and short stature alone, however, are not an indication of failure to thrive. Many babies have periods of no weight gain; some may even lose a little weight from time to time. Failure to thrive typically describes babies under the age of 1 year who fail to gain weight for three consecutive months, or children whose weight is lower than the 3rd percentile or 20 percent below the ideal weight for their height. 

If your child is among those who double and triple their birth weight at later dates, perhaps 9 months and 18 months, don’t panic. Some children grow more slowly than others, and some never achieve the height that other children achieve given their genetic differences (it’s unlikely that short parents will produce tall children). 

There is little cause for concern as long as a child is growing steadily, albeit slowly. The growth of each individual child should be measured over time against himself, and attention should be focused on overall development—physically, mentally, and behaviorally.

The following symptoms may also be seen in a child that fails to thrive: 

  • Constipation 
  • Excessive crying 
  • Excessive sleepiness 
  • Irritability 
  • Poor feeding 

Failure to thrive must be diagnosed and treated early (ideally within three months). Delaying intervention could result in disruption to a child’s normal physical, mental, and emotional development, including gross motor skills (rolling over, sitting up, standing or walking).

What is the treatment for failure to thrive? 

A child’s health care provider must figure out exactly when a child’s weight gain or growth stopped in order to determine what is causing the failure to thrive. Once an underlying medical condition is ruled out, your child’s health care provider will consider emotional or social problems. 

In the case of a breastfed baby, if the mother has ample breast milk but her baby is underfed, the health care provider can share breastfeeding tips and techniques. If a mother’s milk supply is low, the health care provider may suggest that a mother pump her breasts and supplement with formula until her milk supply recovers and her child displays consistent weight gain. The American Academy of Pediatrics cautions that parents should not give their child dietary supplements without first consulting the child’s doctor, since there may be an underlying medical condition. If you think your child is not growing appropriately, contact his health care provider for a thorough evaluation. Sometimes, reassurance is the only treatment needed.

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